FSGS, also known as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a disease in which scar tissue develops on the parts of the kidneys that filter waste from your blood. The scarring of FSGS only occurs in small sections of each glomerulus. At first, only a small part of glomeruli are affected. When it becomes serious condition, it can lead to kidney failure.

FSGS can be caused by a variety of conditions. An infection, drug, or a disease which affects the entire body, such as HIV infection, sickle disease, diabetes or lupus etc, can cause scarring. In addition, FSGS can also be affected by another glomerular disease that you had before you got this disease.

Based on different causes, FSGS can be divided into two types.

-Primary FSGS

Primary FSGS is condition which occurs on its own without a known factors.

-Secondary FSGS

Secondary FSGS means the disease is caused by other factors, such as drug abuse, diabetes, sickle cell disease, obesity and even some types of kidney diseases can lead to FSGS. In this condition, treating the underlying cause often decline or even stop the damages to your kidneys.

-Familial FSGS

It is also known as genetic FSGS, which is a rare form. if several members of your family have FSGS, you are suspected to be affected. Genetic FSGS can also happen when neither parent has it, but each carries one copy of an abnormal gene which can be passed to next generation.

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FSGS symptoms are subtle and you may even not find any signs. If you are affecting by FSGS, you may have one or more of the following symptoms.

-edema in your eyes, legs, ankles

-bubbles or foams in urine. It is caused by high proteins levels in your urine.

-high fat levels in your blood

-weight gain because of excessive fluids building up in your body.

-low protein levels in your blood

The following tests will help you to find out whether you have FSGS or not.

Blood test

Blood test is used to measure your protein level and cholesterol level and waste products in your blood.

Urine test

A urine test will help you find out the excessive protein and blood in your blood.

Kidney biopsy

Kidney biopsy is a test in which doctors will use a special needle to remove a tiny piece of your kidneys. And he or she will observe it under a microscope.


It’s full name known as glomerular filtration rate, which is used to figure out how well your kidneys are filtering the wastes and toxins in your blood.

Genetic test

Genetic test can help your doctors to know whether your disease is caused by genes or not. It is important to help your doctor to choose the best

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Treatments for FSGS differ from cause and patient’s medical condition. Here are main kinds of treatment options for FSGS patients for your reference.


Steroids drugs are used to clam your immune system and make it stop assaulting your glomeruli.


Swelling is a common symptom of FSGS. Diuretics can help remove the excessive fluids in your body. In addition, it is used to decline your blood pressure level.

ACE inhibitors and ARBs

ACE inhibitors and ARBs can reduce the protein loss and lower blood pressure level.

TCM Therapy

Many herbs can affect damaged cells and even stimulate the scarred cells to heal by their own. TCM physicians will prescribe different herb lists, according to your medical conditions. You may find TCM therapies in different treatment options, including decoction, osmotherapy, medicated bath, foot bath, acupoint therapy etc.

Some foods can boost your kidneys while others may put stress on your kidneys. Therefore, a right diet management will help your kidneys work better. Generally, FSGS patients are suggested to have a low-salt, low-protein, low-phosphorus diet.

Low-salt diet can help relieve your swellings; choosing right protein help lighten the load of wastes on your kidneys. When your kidneys cannot work well, they cannot remove the excessive phosphorus in your blood. This is why you are suggested to reduce phosphorus-rich foods in your diet plan.

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You are what you eat. A kidney-friendly diet can help patients with FSGS keep further damage away from their kidneys. FSGS diet limit some foods to prevent the minerals in those foods from building up in your body. Here are FSGS diet suggestions for your reference.


Your body need protein to grow, heal and keep healthy. Usually, FSGS patients will be asked to limit the intake of protein or change the source of protein. High-protein diet put stress and cause more damages on your kidneys. You can find rich protein in the following foods: red meat, poultry, eggs.


FSGS patients should choose “good fat” or healthier fat, which is known as unsaturated fat, such as olive oil, corn oil and olive oil. It is “good”, because help reduce cholesterol. On the contrary, the “bad fat” refers to saturated fat, it can increase the risk of high cholesterol level and heart disease. You should avoid the bad fat as follows: meats, shortening, lard, butter.


Sodium is a substance which can be found in many foods. Because of damaged kidneys, FSGS patients’ may suffer from swellings, which is caused by excessive fluids building up in the body. If you take too much sodium, you will feel thirsty and drink more water. As a result, patients may suffer more serious swellings. In addition, high-sodium diet will also increase your blood pressure. It also makes your kidneys and heart work harder.


FSGS patients are suggested to take low-phosphorus diet, because damaged kidneys cannot remove excessive phosphorus. It will lead to itchy skin or other skin problems.

Work with your dietitian to make a meal plan which helps you get the right amount of protein, fat, sodium and phosphorus. If you need any help, you can consult our online service staff directly.